A domain name is a unique address for a website. Usually, it consists of a website name and a domain name extension. A memorable domain will strengthen your branding and help your audience find your website.
This beginner-friendly guide will explain everything you need to know about domain names, including how they work and why you need one. We will also explain the steps to get domain names and answer some frequently asked questions.
While a domain name and a Universal Resource Locator (URL) share some similarities, they are different. It acts as a complete web address that can direct visitors to a specific page on a site. A domain name is just a part of it.
Also, it consists of a protocol, domain, and path. The protocol shows whether a site has an SSL certificate. Note that URLs have a path only when they direct visitors to a specific page on a site.
There’s also the fully qualified domain name (FQDN). This refers to the complete version of a domain name that also consists of the hostname.
Every website has two main elements – a domain name and a web hosting server. All domain names are linked to their respective IP addresses and point to the specific web servers that host the websites.
When a user enters a domain name into a browser, it looks for the associated IP address through a global network of Domain Name System (DNS) servers.
Next, the server with the information about the IP address returns it to the web browser, which requests data about the site from the domain’s hosting service. This web server stores all of the website’s data, including its files, database, and HTML code.
Once the host has sent the data back, the web browser converts it into a web page that users can visit.
Here are some of the reasons why you need a domain name for your business or project:
Different types of domain names can reveal more information about a website. Here are some of the most common types:
A top-level domain is a domain extension. Various TLDs are available online, but .com domains are the most popular, with over 54% of all websites using them. A popular extension drives high organic traffic as users often write it by default. Other popular choices are .net, .io, and .store TLD.
However, a less popular extension, such as .online, is often less expensive and can make a domain more unique. Other examples of cheap domains include .tech, .site, and .shop. With the increasing number of new websites created daily, the popularity of a specific top-level domain might also change in the future.
Check out the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for the official list of all legitimate TLDs.
A country-code top-level domain is an extension specific to a particular country. It consists of two letters based on the international country codes.
Some platforms help find the correct country codes, such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)’s database. To illustrate, sites from Japan use .jp as their extensions, whereas .us domains are mostly registered for the US-based websites and so on.
A ccTLD is useful for a company that focuses on a specific country. This way, international companies can differentiate their content for different regions.
For example, the BBC uses bbc.co.uk as their UK domain and targets the locals and bbc.com for the international audience.
A generic top-level domain is an extension that does not rely on a country code. There are no specific criteria to obtain a gTLD. However, some extensions are sponsored by designated agencies or organizations. Nevertheless, you need to be careful not to confuse your visitors, as some domains have certain associations. For instance, .org extension is associated with the sites of organizations.
Some generic TLDs are reserved for specific types of registrants. For example, an academic institution can use .edu, and a governmental agency can use .gov. If your company or project does not belong to a particular category, you will not be able to use the generic TLDs associated with it, but you can use popular extensions instead, such as .com or its first alternative .net domain, .xyz, or .icu.
We focused on the different extension types above. The following are the other available structures of domain names:
A second-level domain (SLD) is below TLDs in the domain name hierarchy. An SLD is the section of a domain name located to the left of the last dot. Take www.sinhcoms.com, for example – sinhcoms is the SLD, and .com is the TLD.
Some domain name registries use a second-level domain to indicate a specific entity registering. For example, academic institutions in the United Kingdom mostly register websites under .ac.uk.
A subdomain indicates a separate division from a parent domain that still shares the same servers. There is no need to register a subdomain. Technically, the www of most URLs is a subdomain that shows that a site is part of the world wide web.
The most common reason to create subdomains is to organize and divide web content into separate sections. For example, Google uses developers.google.com to provide specific information for developers.
Another use of a subdomain is to create another website with the same name but in different languages. Take Wikipedia as an example – it has a separate subdomain for each language. It uses en.wikipedia.org for the English version and es.wikipedia.org for the Spanish one.
Website builders, such as WordPress.com, or content management systems, like Blogger, often offer free domain names for new users. Usually, beginners take this opportunity to create their websites before investing money into them.
A free web address often follows the same structure as subdomains. For example, instead of sinhcomstut.com, the domain would be *.wordpress.com or *.blogspot.com.
Keep in mind that getting a free domain often comes with minimal features and tools.
This section will explain how to register and transfer a domain name.
Domain registration is the process of purchasing a domain from a domain name registrar for a specific period. On the other hand, domain name transfer refers to the process of moving a domain from one registrar to another.
To find the right domain, consider branding and cost. Make sure that it is memorable, catchy, and fits your budget.
Popular domain names are often more expensive and might already be taken. Some generators provide options if the domain you want is unavailable. With a hosting service like Hostinger, users can choose a different top-level domain (TLD) with the same name or an alternative.
Once you have found a valid domain name, use a trustworthy registrar to buy the domain. To find the list of legitimate domain name registrars, check the ICANN database.
If you choose to use Hostinger’s domain registration services, follow these steps:
After the domain registration is complete, you will have access to a control panel with all the essential management tools.
Domain transfer is the process of changing a domain’s registrar. As domain registrars offer different support and maintenance, some users transfer their domains for better service.
With Hostinger, users can perform a domain transfer from any registrar.
All you have to do is enter the domain authorization code or EPP from your current provider and confirm the transfer. The process can take from 4 to 7 days.
Unfortunately, some extensions are not transferable. However, there is an option to point the nameservers to a particular hosting company if a registrar doesn’t accept certain TLDs. You will need to change your nameservers for this.
Note that changing the web server information can only be done from where you purchased the domain. However, if your registrar does not allow changing nameservers, it is still possible to point a domain to a different registrar using an A record.
A domain name is a unique address used to access a website. Having a custom domain name has many advantages, such as improving memorability, branding, and SEO.
In this article, we explained how domain names work, their different types, and how to register and transfer a domain name.
We hope this article has given you a basic understanding of what is a domain name and how to incorporate them into your online business or project.